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The Convention on Cluster Munitions

 

The Convention on Cluster Munitions

The Convention on Cluster Munitions (CCM) prohibits the use, possession, production and transfer of cluster munitions and requires the destruction of existing stocks. Adopted on 30 May 2008 during a Diplomatic Conference held in Dublin, it was the culmination of a process begun in Oslo in February 2007, following the failure of the negotiations under the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW).

Entered into force on 1 August 2010, the CCM has been ratified by 110 States and signed by 15, not including some of the leading manufacturers and users of cluster munitions: US, Russian Federation, China, India, Pakistan, and Brazil.

Both in its content and negotiating process, the Oslo Convention drew heavily from the Ottawa Convention on anti-personnel mines. Its provisions relate to five main thematic areas: clearance and risk education; assistance to victims; destruction of stockpiles; cooperation and international assistance; and transparency measures. Some of the main obligations taken on by States Parties to the Convention include:

  • clearance of contaminated areas and awareness-raising among the civilian populations living in their proximity;
  • assistance to victims, including the provision of medical care and rehabilitation services, psychological support, social services and support for reintegration;
  • destruction of existing stockpiles, within eight years from entry into force of the Convention for the concerned State party;
  • provision of technical, material or financial assistance to other State Parties to facilitate CCM implementation;
  • submission of periodic reports with data concerning, inter alia, national legislative or administrative measure to implement the Convention; number and types of stocked munitions in deposits; measures relating to victim assistance; data on contaminated areas and measures relating to clearance.

States Parties assess implementation of the Convention and decide on further action during annual Meetings of the States Parties and five-yearly Review Conferences. During the Second Meeting of the State Parties, the Vientiane Action Plan was adopted. The first Review Conference was held in Dubrovnik (Croatia) from 7 to 11 September 2015. The Second Review Conference is planned in Switzeralnd from 25 to 27 November 2020 and from 4 to 5 February 2021.

Italy’s participation in the Convention

Italy, which participated in the Oslo process from the outset and ratified the Convention in September 2011, considers the CCM as a key step towards increased international security not only for its role in promoting disarmament, but also for its contribution to strengthening international humanitarian law. As a set of measures that oblige State Parties to identify and eliminate unexploded munitions, that pose a serious threat even in post-conflict situations, the Convention also provides for additional measures for the protection of human rights and the promotion of development.

For Italy, universalization of the Convention is a priority, in particular its ratification or accession by the major producers and possessors of cluster munitions. Universal adherence to this instrument is even more urgent and necessary in the light of the alleged use of these weapons in many conflict areas.

Italy also attaches primary value to cooperation and international assistance, which are necessary for the full implementation of the Convention. In recent years, it has invested significantly in assistance programmes focusing in particular on clearance of contaminated territories, stockpile destruction and victim assistance. Some of the countries that have received Italian support in the framework of humanitarian demining include Afghanistan, Somalia, Libya and the Gaza Strip. In the humanitarian field, finally, the protection of vulnerable groups in conflict and emergency situations is another priority for our institutions.

In terms of national implementation Italy, which has never produced cluster munitions, completed the destruction of its cluster munition stocks in 2015, almost five years ahead of the deadline as set out in art. 3 of the Convention

Main Statements

Second Review Conference, first part (25-27 November 2020): Universalization; International cooperation and assistance; Victim assistance.

Second Preparatory Meeting for the Second Review Conference (Geneva, 4 September 2020): Lausanne Action Plan and Political Declaration (Mr. Tancredi Francese)

First Preparatory Meeting for the Second Review Conference (Geneva, 29 June 2020): Elements for the Lausanne Action Plan (Mr. Tancredi Francese)

Nineth Meeting of the States Parties (Geneva, 2-4 September 2019): International cooperation and assistance; Victim assistance (Amb. Gianfranco Incarnato)

Eighth Meeting of the States Parties (Geneva, 3-5 September 2018): International cooperation and assistance; Victim assistance (Amb. Gianfranco Incarnato)

Seventh Meeting of the States Parties (Geneva, 4-6 September 2017): Universalization (Amb. Vinicio Mati, 4 September); Victim Assistance (Dr. Palma D'Ambrosio, 5 September); Cooperation and Assistance (Dr. Palma D'Ambrosio, 5 September); Financial Issues (Dr. Palma D'Ambrosio, 6 September); Synergies (Dr. Palma D'Ambrosio, 6 September).

Sixth Meeting of the States Parties (Geneva, 5-7 September 2016): Universalization(Amb. Vinicio Mati, 5 September); Victim Assistance (Dr. Palma D'Ambrosio, 6 September); Cooperation and Assistance (Dr. Palma D'Ambrosio, 7 September); 2017 Meeting Budget (Dr. Palma D'Ambrosio, 7 September).

First Review Conference (Dubrovnik, 7-11 September 2015):High Level Segment, International Cooperation and Assistance, Financial model for the Implementation Support Unit

Intersessional Meeting (Geneva, 22-23 June 2015) 

First Preparatory Committee for the 2015 Review Conference (Geneva, 5 February 2015)

Fifth Meeting of the States Parties (San José, Costa Rica, 1-5 September 2014): General Debate and International Cooperation and Assistance

 

Documents and Resources

Text of the Convention on Cluster Munitions

First Preparatory Meeting for the Second Review Conference

Final Report of the 2017 Meeting of the States Parties

Final Report of the First Review Conference and Dubrovnik Action Plan (2015)

Vientiane Action Plan

Declaration adopted by 46 States launching the Oslo Process, 23 February 2007

Transparency reports submitted by States Parties in accordance with art. 7 of the Oslo Convention

Convention on Cluster Munitions website

Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD)

United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS)

Cluster Munition Coalition

International Committee of the Red Cross: Cluster Munitions

Human Rights Watch

Mines Advisory Group (MAG): Cluster Munitions

United Nations Office in Geneva

Landmines and Cluster Munitions Monitor

Federation of American Scientists: Cluster Bombs


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